Current Research On Equine Reproduction

Veterinary researchers have been studying correlations between reproduction and nutritional supplementation for several decades now. Research shows a comprehensive diet has the potential to affect reproductive outcomes in both mares and stallions.

Literature Cited


1. Altmae S, Franasiak JM, Mandar R. The seminal microbiome in health and disease. Nat Rev Urol 2019;16:703-721.
2. Schuppe HC, Pilatz A, Hossain H, et al. Urogenital Infection as a Risk Factor for Male Infertility. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017;114:339-346.
3. Tomaiuolo R, Veneruso I, Cariati F, et al. Microbiota and Human Reproduction: The Case of Male Infertility. High Throughput 2020;9.
4. Vitale SG, Ferrari F, Ciebiera M, et al. The Role of Genital Tract Microbiome in Fertility: A Systematic Review. Int J Mol Sci 2021;23.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

5. Catandi GD, LiPuma L, Obeidat YM, et al. Oocyte metabolic function, lipid composition, and developmental potential are altered by diet in older mares. Reproduction 2022;163:183-198.
6. Robles M, Loux S, de Mestre AM, et al. Environmental constraints and pathologies that modulate equine placental genes and development. Reproduction 2022;163:R25-R38.
7. Jacobs RD, Ealy AD, Pennington PM, et al. Dietary Supplementation of Algae-Derived Omega-3 Fatty Acids Influences Endometrial and Conceptus Transcript Profiles in Mares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2018;62:66-75.
8. Carnevale EM. Pregnancy Success Rates Per Transfer Among Mares Before and After Omega-3 and Micronutrient Supplementation: Colorado State University, 2008.
9. Aurich C, Ortega Ferrusola C, Pena Vega FJ, et al. Seasonal changes in the sperm fatty acid composition of Shetland pony stallions. Theriogenology 2018;107:149-153.

Prebiotics and Postbiotics

10. Abbasi A, Aghebati-Maleki L, Homayouni-Rad A. The promising biological role of postbiotics derived from probiotic Lactobacillus species in reproductive health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021:1-13.
11. Kyono K, Hashimoto T, Kikuchi S, et al. A pilot study and case reports on endometrial microbiota and pregnancy outcome: An analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing among IVF patients, and trial therapeutic intervention for dysbiotic endometrium. Reprod Med Biol;2018:1–11.
12. Respondek F, Myers K, Smith TL, et al. Dietary supplementation with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improves insulin sensitivity in obese horses. J Anim Sci 2011;89:77-83.
13. Smieszek A, Marcinkowska K, Pielok A, et al. Obesity Affects the Proliferative Potential of Equine Endometrial Progenitor Cells and Modulates Their Molecular Phenotype Associated with Mitochondrial Metabolism. Cells 2022;11.
14. Vick MM, Sessions DR, Murphy BA, et al. Obesity is associated with altered metabolic and reproductive activity in the mare: effects of metformin on insulin sensitivity and reproductive cyclicity. Reprod Fertil Dev 2006;18:609-617.


15. Lipiński K, Chrostowski G, Matusevicius P, et al. The effect of diets supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii probiotic yeast on the reproductive performance of pregnant and lactating sows. Veterinarija ir Zootechnika 2012;59:40-44.
16. Zaleska B, Milewski S, Ząbek K. Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on reproductive performance, milk yield in ewes and offspring growth. Arch Anim Breed 2015;58:79-83.


17. Hong J, Lee E. Intrafollicular amino acid concentration and the effect of amino acids in a defined maturation medium on porcine oocyte maturation, fertilization, and preimplantation development. Theriogenology 2007;68:728-735.
18. Wang L, Zhou C, Sun J, et al. Glutamine and norepinephrine in follicular fluid synergistically enhance the antioxidant capacity of human granulosa cells and the outcome of IVF-ET. Sci Rep 2022;12:9936.
19. Hamed MA, Akhigbe TM, Akhigbe RE, et al. Glutamine restores testicular glutathionedependent antioxidant defense and upregulates NO/cGMP signaling in sleep deprivation-induced reproductive dysfunction in rats. Biomed Pharmacother 2022;148:112765.


20. Pekala J, Patkowska-Sokola B, Bodkowski R, et al. L-carnitine — metabolic functions and meaning in humans life. Curr Drug Metab 2011;12:667-678.
21. Dunning KR, Robker RL. Promoting lipid utilization with l-carnitine to improve oocyte quality. Anim Reprod Sci 2012;134:69-75.
22. Aliabadi E, Soleimani Mehranjani M, Borzoei Z, et al. Effects of L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine on testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality. Iran J Reprod Med 2012;10:77-82.
23. Li J, Liu L, Weng J, et al. Biological roles of l-carnitine in oocyte and early embryo development. Mol Reprod Dev 2021;88:673-685.
24. Miyamoto K, Sato EF, Kasahara E, et al. Effect of oxidative stress during repeated ovulation on the structure and functions of the ovary, oocytes, and their mitochondria. Free Radic Biol Med 2010;49:674-681.

Vitamin E

25. Lewis ED, Meydani SN, Wu D. Regulatory role of vitamin E in the immune system and inflammation. IUBMB Life 2019;71:487-494.
26. Fey WO, F. Study of the improvement of reproduction in brood mares by treatment with vitamin E. Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 1948;90:113-133.

Vitamin C

27. Aten RF, Duarte KM, Behrman HR. Regulation of ovarian antioxidant vitamins, reduced glutathione, and lipid peroxidation by luteinizing hormone and prostaglandin F2 alpha. Biol Reprod 1992;46:401-407.
28. Dawson EB, Harris WA, Powell LC. Relationship between ascorbic acid and male fertility. World Rev Nutr Diet 1990;62:1-26.
29. Luck MR, Jeyaseelan I, Scholes RA. Ascorbic acid and fertility. Biol Reprod 1995;52:262-266.

Superoxide Dismutase

30. Carillon J, Rouanet JM, Cristol JP, et al. Superoxide dismutase administration, a potential therapy against oxidative stress related diseases: several routes of supplementation and proposal of an original mechanism of action. Pharm Res 2013;30:2718-2728.
31. Negri L, Benaglia R, Monti E, et al. Effect of superoxide dismutase supplementation on sperm DNA fragmentation. Arch Ital Urol Androl 2017;89:212-218.

Oxidative Stress

32. Fujii J, Iuchi Y, Okada F. Fundamental roles of reactive oxygen species and protective mechanisms in the female reproductive system. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2005;3:43.
33. Baumber J, Ball BA, Gravance CG, et al. The effect of reactive oxygen species on equine sperm motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and membrane lipid peroxidation. J Androl 2000;21:895-902.
34. Pena FJ, O’Flaherty C, Ortiz Rodriguez JM, et al. Redox Regulation and Oxidative Stress: The Particular Case of the Stallion Spermatozoa. Antioxidants (Basel) 2019;8.
35. Agarwal A, Gupta S, Sharma RK. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2005;3:28.
36. Agarwal A, Aponte-Mellado A, Premkumar BJ, et al. The effects of oxidative stress on female reproduction: a review. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2012;10:49.
37. Al-Gubory KH, Fowler PA, Garrel C. The roles of cellular reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and antioxidants in pregnancy outcomes. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2010;42:1634-1650.
38. Contri A, De Amicis I, Molinari A, et al. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation on fresh semen quality in stallion. Theriogenology 2011;75:1319-1326.
39. Desai N, Sharma R, Makker K, et al. Physiologic and pathologic levels of reactive oxygen species in neat semen of infertile men. Fertil Steril 2009;92:1626-1631.

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